Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Stradano’s Allegorical Invention of the Americas in Late Sixteenth

Stradano’s Allegorical Invention of the Americas in Late Sixteenth-Century Florence section 1 Essay by LIA MARKEY This article arranges Giovanni Stradano’s etchings of the revelation of the Americas from the Americae Retectio and Nova Reperta arrangement inside the setting of their structure in late sixteenthcentury Florence, where the craftsman worked at the Medici court and teamed up with the dedicatee of the prints, Luigi Alamanni. Through an examination of the pictures corresponding to contemporary writings about the pilots who made a trip to the Americas, just as traditional sources, images, and works of workmanship in assorted mediaâ€tapestry, print, ephemera, and frescoâ€the study contends that Stradano’s metaphorical portrayals of the Americas were created so as to clarify Florence’s job in the creation of the New World. Outline1 INTRODUCTION2  STRADANO, ALAMANNI, AND THE ACCADEMIA DEGLI ALTERATI3 SOURCES AT THE MEDICI COURT4 AMERICA UNVEILED Presentation We will compose a custom exposition on Stradano’s Allegorical Invention of the Americas in Late Sixteenth-Century Florence section 1 explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now In the late 1580s, about a century after the movements of Columbus and Vespucci, Giovanni Stradano (otherwise called Jan Van der Straet and Johannes Stradanus, 1523â€1605) planned etchings in two print arrangement speaking to the revelation of the New World. In the eminent prints guides are formed as legendary saints, and Stradano’s pictures recommend a capriccio, or dream, as opposed to a record of newsworthy occasions. The Americae Retectio arrangement incorporates an intricate frontispiece (fig. 1) and three prints (figs. 2â€4) in sequential request that portray Christopher Columbus Giovanni Stradano, Frontispiece for the Americae Retectio arrangement, late1580s. Etching. Private assortment. (1451â€1506), Amerigo Vespucci (1454â€1512), and Ferdinand Magellan (1480â€1521).1 Two prints from Stradano’s Nova Reperta arrangement comparatively join figurative symbolism with subtitles to depict Vespucci’s experience with the New World (figs. 5 and 6).2 The Nova Reperta arrangement incorporates nineteen prints, each speaking to an alternate creation or revelation of the ongoing hundreds of years, extending from the remedy for syphilis to the creation of silk.3 Stradano’s four Americae Retectio prints and these two Nova Reperta prints have comparative iconography, and all were committed to individuals from the Alamanni family and first printed by the Galle distributing house in the late 1580s and mid 1590s. Giovanni Stradano, Columbus in the Americae Retectio arrangement, late1580s. Etching. Private assortment. Since the late sixteenth century, Stradano’s prints portraying the Americas have been utilized as masterful sources by craftsmen and printmakers, and all the more as of late as delineations for researchers expounding on the collaboration between the Old and New Worlds. The jobs of both Stradano and the Alamanni in the formation of the prints have regularly been dismissed, and they are much of the time exclusively credited to the Flemish printmaker and distributer. In the mid seventeenth century, the Northern printmaking family, the De Brys, replicated the Americae Retectio arrangement with not many modifications, and the Stradano plans are in this way frequently erroneously ascribed to the De Brys.4 Since Michel de Certeau’s utilization of Stradano’s America picture (fig. 5) from the Nova Reperta arrangement on the frontispiece of his 1975 The Writing of History, Stradano’s prints and their propagations by De Bry have served to show Giovanni Stradano, Vespucci in the Americae Retectio arrangement, late 1580s.Engraving. Private assortment endless writings about the disclosure of America and colonialism.5 Despite the notoriety of the pictures, and the ongoing interest with advancing Stradano’s America specifically as a portrayal of the frontier Other, the works have not been completely considered inside the setting in which they were created, and even their mind boggling iconography remains generally unexplored.6 Most as of late, Michael Gaudio has required a reexamination of Stradano’s America comparable to ‘‘the genuine space of the engraver’s Giovanni Stradano, Magellan in the Americae Retectio arrangement, late Giovanni Stradano, Magellan in the Americae Retectio arrangement, late 1580s. Etching. Private assortment. workshop where this print was made.’’7 Yet this print was considered, not in the engraver’s workshop, but instead on Stradano’s page. The prints were stores of authentic and anecdotal data assembled by perusing, talking, and expounding on these commended pilots among an encircled gathering of people in Florence. This investigation contends that the America print, alongside Stradano’s five other New World pictures, must be analyzed together inside the setting of his circle. The initial segment of this investigation in this way sets up the social condition of the prints’ creation in late sixteenth-century Florence. Assessment of Stradano’s experience as a print fashioner and Medici court craftsman, and of Luigi Alamanni’s contribution in the Florentine Accademia degli Alterati, gives basic understanding into the production of these images.8 Stradano structured the prints around the hour of Ferdinando de’ Medici’s (15 49â€1609) 1588 promotion as Grand Duke. Beforehand Stradano had been engaged with the making of symbolic artistic creations, ephemera, and cartography Giovanni Stradano, America in the Nova Reperta arrangement, late 1580s. Etching. Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, NY. for Medici promulgation under Ferdinando’s father, Grand Duke Cosimo de’ Medici (1519â€74), and his sibling, Grand Duke Francesco de’ Medici (1541â€87). At the Medici court he would have experienced articles from, messages about, and pictures of the New World. Despite the fact that the Medici were not associated with the colonization of the Americas, and they themselves were subsumed under the sway of Spain, Grand Duke Ferdinando tried to fortify social and monetary binds with the New World during his rule. The second piece of the article intently inspects the content and picture of each print according to this milieu. Subtitles on the prints, picked by the Alamanni, and Stradano’s engravings on the related preliminary drawings uncover explicit hotspots for, and thoughts behind, the origination of the images.9 Using the literary materials accessible about the New World and invigorated both by contemporary epic writing expounded on the guides and by o ld sources, for example, Lucretius, Stradano delivered symbolic pictures that acquire from insignias and imprese, court frescoes, celebrations, embroidered works of art, cartography, and other printed pictures. These other media gave a symbolic visual language that was recognizable to sixteenthcentury watchers. The Astrolabe in the Nova Reperta arrangement, late 1580s. Etching. , Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University in the City of New York. width=581 height=425/> Giovanni Stradano, The Astrolabe in the Nova Reperta arrangement, late1580s. Etching. , Rare Book and Manuscript Library,Columbia University in the City of New York. media gave a metaphorical visual language that was natural to sixteenthcentury watchers. As indicated by Joseâ' Rabasa, in Stradano’s prints and particularly the America etching, ‘‘newness is delivered by methods for desultory courses of action of pretty much promptly perceived unmistakable motifs.’’10 These ‘‘descriptive motifs’’ to which Rabasa implies are created through the development of complex symbolic accounts involved significant structures that fuse the portrayal of divine beings and pilots nearby embodiments of the New World, fantastical beasts, half and half animals, and old divine beings. These verbose and behind the times pictures would have appeared to be standard, and would have been conceivable, to the prints’ late sixteenth-century crowd. However as Sabine MacCormack has clarified, there were ‘‘limits of understanding’’ in developments of the New World, for pictures ‘à ¢â‚¬Ëœdid not on their own lead to an essentially new view of Greco-Roman relic or of the Americas.’’11 By encircling the New World in conspicuous symbolic symbolism, Stradano’s inscriptions could announce the original thought that the New World was a Florentine creation and energetically revel in these discoveries.12 In his fundamental investigation on folklore and moral story in the Renaissance, The Survival of the Pagan Gods, Jean Seznec composes that ‘‘basically, purposeful anecdote is regularly sheer imposture, used to accommodate the irreconcilable.’’13 Indeed, these pictures do only that: theymake no reference to the Spanish, unmistakably associate the New World to Italy, and, with the figure of Vespucci specifically, feature Florence’s job in the revelation. Full of fleeting conflicts between the old (agnostic folklore) and the new (the disclosure and development of the Americas) the prints, spread all through the world, made America part of Florence’s history, despite the fact that in all actuality the New World assumed a little job in Florence’s over a significant time span. This case could be made distinctly through the language of moral story in light of the fact that verifiable in purposeful anecdote lies dream and the idea that the portrayals are nonexistent.  STRADANO, ALAMANNI, AND THE ACCADEMIA DEGLI ALTERATI As is basic in sixteenth-century etchings, the inscriptions on the prints clarify that their creation was the aftereffect of a coordinated effort between the fashioner or designer (Stradano), the printmaker and distributer (Galle and Collaert), and the dedicatee or benefactor (the Alamanni). A Flemish craftsman who started wor

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Relative Leader Member Exchanges †Free Samples to Students

Question: Examine about the Relative Leader Member Exchanges. Answer: Presentation: The point of the task is to direct basic examination of a pioneer who is a good example to improve my authority characteristics and viability. The task is separated into three phases. The principal stage brings up the characteristics of a pioneer and ways she can utilize her administration aptitudes. The paper considers the branch supervisor of the coordinations organization I am utilized as a lesser chief. The principal area is the perception segment and talks about the authority styles of the branch chief. It at that point dives into how she utilizes impact and capacity to lead her subordinates. The subsequent stage contains the course of events to depict this procedure of watching the chief. This is followed a meeting of her to increase further understanding of her authority styles. The branch administrator in the meeting additionally uncovers about the difficulties she faces a pioneer and the significance of capacity to hold ones situation in an association. The last stage contai ns self-impression of mine about the authority styles I would apply when I gain advancement to a pioneers position like the branch chief. It additionally contains a proposal for the branch director. The branch administrator of the strategic organization I work in is a worker who is regularly viewed as fruitful and compelling pioneer. I report to her as a student supervisor and have the chance to cooperate with her on normal premise. Standard perceptions of her style of working and driving the branch uncovers her initiative qualities and conduct. She impacts her subordinates and uses Hawthorne impact to lead and inspire them. The branch administrator holds a vintage of working for over five years in the strategic organization and has the experience of working in two different associations. She right now holds the situation of an associate VP in the strategic organization and holds positive expert connection with a few other high ranking representatives. She utilizes her position and capacity to impact her subordinates (Vann, Coleman and Simpson 2014). The branch chief of the part of the coordinations organization I am posted in employments impact both inside and outside the associations to make sure about business. She has long stretches of understanding of working in the coordinations business and knows how coordinations industry functions. She have a few administration characteristics like center, certainty, respectability, energy for her calling, explanatory force, dynamic force, information about the market and in particular solid correspondence skills(Clarke 2013). She has practiced and shown these initiative characteristics of her on a few event and has earned acknowledgment from the zenith the executives on numerous occasions. Utilization of impact inside the organization: She utilizes her persuasions to make the representatives including the lesser work proficiently. She from the outset holds a gathering each morning with her subordinates to choose the profitability parameters she anticipates that them should accomplish for the afternoon. The efficiency parameters incorporate the quantity of new clients every worker should meet and number of follow up arrangements the representatives ought to join in. At that point she would solicit her subordinates the evaluated number from arrangements gatherings and which are probably going to procure new clients who might utilize the coordinations office of the organization. She would then examine the business and the money inflow these new clients can win for the company(Epitropaki and Martin 2013). The branch director would then ask the workers including the lesser representatives whether they have any trouble in persuading a specific client. On the off chance that the worker being referred to happens to be a le sser representative, she would guarantee that a senior representative goes with the lesser worker for the arrangement. On the off chance that the representative happens to be a senior or if a client isn't consenting to utilize the coordinations office of the organization much after a few arrangements, she by and by goes with the workers on the following arrangement. This help and worry for the workers and their exhibitions uncovers her concentration and energy for business age as a branch manager(DuBrin 2015). The branch chief has great correspondence and enticing abilities which she to impact the conduct of her subordinate representatives. She would continue reminding the representatives working under her that the summit the board watches their exhibitions and conduct. She on standard premise cause the workers to understand that their superior exhibitions would realize their own advancements, work fulfillment and vocation development. She would hold individual gatherings with inadequately performing representatives and guidance them how to improve their performances(Northouse 2015). The branch director oversees the exhibitions of each worker working under her and praises high performing representatives with remunerations and acknowledgment declarations. She would caution representatives who show amateurish and easygoing mentality towards their work. These activities of her uncover a few administration characteristics. They uncover her anxiety for her supporters and their exhibitions. Thes e activities of her uncover her inspiration and execution breaking down force. It very well may be said that these characteristics of her have extraordinary effects on the representatives at the branch(Daft 2014). Her nonstop management urged workers to accomplish elevated level of exhibitions by gaining new clients, keeping up solid relationship with the current clients. The result of her impact as a branch head was that the representatives prevailing with regards to obtaining a tremendous customer base that utilized the coordinations offices of the organization which created extraordinary incomes for branch and the organization all in all. It merits referencing that a portion of the clients obtained and kept up under the authority of the branch supervisor are global organizations who utilizes the coordinations offices of the organization and produces gigantic income on ordinary premise (Bernab-Moreno et al. 2015). Utilization of effect on the clients: The branch administrator utilizes her fantastic compelling initiative forces to win clients from significantly greater coordinations organizations. She first uses her enormous correspondence and enticing abilities to win clients. She locations and treats the new clients as though they were existing clients. She from the outset addresses the clients, poses significant inquiries and their business prerequisites to break down their temperament of coordinations requirements(Tanriverdi and Uysal 2015). For instance, if the client happened to be a main soda pop selling organization, she would pose inquiries identifying with the volume of stock (jugs of sodas) they typically convey per parcel and the areas they send the stock to. She at that point examinations the business needs of the clients dependent on their answers. She features before them the upsides of working with the organization and the offices, which the organization can give its clients. She would frequently think about between the offices of the coordinations organizations to its rivals to feature the upper hand of the previous. This forceful powerful procedure of obtaining customers of hers frequently prevails with regards to wining new clients for the coordinations company(Dagger and Danaher 2014). I on a past event talked with her associate and he also said that the branch supervisor utilizes her impact to prevail upon clients to add to the companys customer base and business age. The branch director frequently utilizes her situation to lead her subordinates to guarantee consistent age of business and persistent inflow of income. The coordinations organization has two wide divisions, the working workplaces which produce income and do all the back office activities and the coordinations office which keeps up the distribution centers and coordinations vehicles. The working workplaces direct the coordinations division to give distribution centers or coordinations transport offices to the clients and guarantees the customers get predominant coordinations offices. The business staffs of the branch meet the customers at customary interims to think about their grievances and new requirements(Pennings et al. 2014). They personal their branch heads and the coordinations office heads about the grievances and new prerequisites of the clients. Our branch supervisor keeps a severe vigil on the prerequisites and the grievances of the clients. She guarantees that their neces sities are met and the objections are settled, if conceivable. This forceful utilization of position to guarantee consumer loyalty encourages the organization to keep up long haul business associations with enormous clients and create proceed with income by giving coordinations administrations to them(Gupta, Gautam and Khare 2015). The branch administrator as one of the VPs of the organization utilizes her capacity to guarantee that the clients of the branch get immediate coordinations benefits, best case scenario rates. She utilizes her capacity to impact the human asset division and a couple of ranking directors to affirm ingestion of four skilled redistribute workers into the finance of the organization. The branch utilizes her situation to feature the superior exhibitions of the representatives at the branch before the administration. This guarantees the worker get acknowledgments and advancement to higher posts which bring them work fulfillment and career(Treem and Leonardi 2013). This powerful and strong initiative of the branch administrator persuade the subordinate workers to accomplish high level of business execution. It is this impact and intensity of hers that has made the branch the most elevated income and business worker branch(Fleming and Spicer 2014). Our branch utilizes her capacity of a VP in her own life to increase invaluable arrangements at inns and cafés. She is hitched and her better half is a legal advisor. She utilized her situation of a VP to pick up work life balance like benefiting herself paid excursions. She went to outlandish vacationer areas and remained at five star lodgings. She utilized her capacity to get the records office repay her all the individual costs. She on one event utilized the organization

Friday, August 21, 2020

How the Vitamin War changed America Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

How the Vitamin War changed America - Assignment Example Vietnam War gravely shook open trust in their legislature and a phenomenal number of Americans transparently condemned their open organizations. The Vietnam War was lost inside America, and the triumphs and accomplishments on the war turf stood futile (Rother, 2007). The American Engagement in Vietnam took an enormous monetary cost for the nation. The two many years of war required colossal human and money related assets. This brought about a total stagflation of American and European economies. Since the beginning of the war, the average cost for basic items expanded by 16% in 1970. Expansion prompted total crash of any financial additions that Americans could have had from their occupations. Others lost their positions and still others saw their wages brought down to help the administration spending on the war. President Lyndon Johnson approached Congress for extra charges to help conceal the war costs. There was just way he was getting this cash; by eliminating residential spendin g. During this time, the legislature shut down numerous social projects to fund the Vietnam War, further imprisoning it in the public’s eyes. At long last, this war cost President Johnson his administration. It made Americans wary about ever doing battle again. Vietnam War instructed Americans that there are cutoff points to the matchless quality of American force. America decided to stay out of world undertakings for a long time after the war (Rother, 2007). The Vietnam War changed the American administration always also. Individuals turned out to be increasingly straightforward about putting a top of presidential powers particularly during war times. The â€Å"War Powers Act† of 1973 shut down phenomenal presidential forces during wartime. The war likewise influenced our military and Americans had a recently discovered regard and love for their troopers that had never been experienced. General Maxwell Taylor was one of the key figures during the war, he says, first, we didn't have any acquaintance with ourselves. We imagined that we were going into another Korean war, yet this was an alternate nation. Besides, we didn't have a clue about our South Vietnamese partners †¦ And we thought less about North Vietnam. Who was Ho Chi Minh? No one truly knew. Along these lines, until we know the adversary, know our partners, and know ourselves, we would be wise to keep out of this sort of messy business. It's exceptionally risky. Many fighters of the Vietnam War were youngsters, insignificant adolescents. They couldn't deal with the worries of war and enjoyed drugs; weed was the medication of decision as it developed unreservedly in Vietnam. Toward the finish of the war, America invited a large number of men who had been scarred hopelessly by the war. These officers couldn't be re joined into the general public as they had no instruction or aptitudes with respect to anything other than battling (Brush, 2002; Wells and Gitlin, 2005). American culture during the Vietnam war was to a great extent directed by its picture in media; and this I mage was not a decent one. It was the primary war in American history that was communicated on TV. This brought the war home for some individuals as they saw the detestations firsthand. The evening news tallied the losses regular and individuals saw the wicked dread of bombings in their own lounges. Toward the beginning of the war, the Vietnam War was portrayed as an extremely positive occasion in American history, yet s time passed the media and general visibility of the war changed definitely. It turned into a futile way of life among

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Virginia Woolf and Wartime Distortions of Natural and Pastoral Imagery in Mrs. Dalloway and Between the Acts - Literature Essay Samples

Alexandra Harris claims in Romantic Moderns that to plant flowers in the middle of a war was to assert one’s firm belief in the future. Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, published in 1925 seven years after the first world war, and her final novel Between the Acts, published in 1941 in the midst of the second, are full of flowers. The pastoral and natural imagery in these novels echo with nostalgia, commemorating happier times past and hoping for their recreation. However, even in their abundance of flowers and birdsong, the images of the pastoral in Woolf’s work do not always look towards a brighter future. The images are distorted and corrupted, resonating with the remaining fears from the previous war and the encroaching fear of the war to come. In Between the Acts, Woolf uses natural imagery as a means to connect the present to the past, reflecting nostalgia as well as the hope that nature provides for continuity. Miss La Trobe flounders at the silence of the stage, but thankfully ‘the cows took up the burden†¦in the very nick of time she lifted her great moon-eyed head and bellowed.’ The pastoral animals fill the silent void, all in unison with the ‘same yearning bellow’ (p. 87). The cows are gentle and ‘great’, with eyes like a ‘moon’, timeless in orbit and with a worldly continuity. The visceral ‘bellow’ joins past and present together: ‘it was the primeval voice sounding loud in the ear of the present moment’ (p. 87). Their ability to cross boundaries of time stretches beyond the context of salvaging the pageant as they ‘annihilated the gap; bridged the distance; filled the emptiness and continued the emotion’ (p. 87). The ‘gap’ and ‘distance’ of time is ‘bridged’ by the cry of nature, one that filled the ‘emptiness’ left by human action, presenting the pastoral as an instrument to con nect with the past and continue to a salvaged future. While the actors are still adorned in their pageant costumes portraying figures from England’s history, ‘each still acted the unacted part conferred on them by their clothes’ (p. 121). Their ‘beauty ’ (p. 121) from the past is ‘revealed’ (p. 121) by the light: ‘the tender, the fading, the uninquisitive but searching light of evening that reveals depths in water and makes even the red brick bungalow radiant’ (p. 121). The natural glow is ‘tender’, enveloping both nature and the industrial ‘red brick bungalow’, joining them under a single place and time to uncover the beauty in each. The idyllic, pastoral setting of the evening creates nostalgia for the beauty that is found in the ‘unacted part conferred on them by their clothes’, a ‘part’ that is rooted in pre-war England.Birds and flowers in particular are remembered in Mrs. Dalloway in conjunction with nostalgic thoughts. The depth of Clarissa Dalloway’s emotion for Peter Walsh as she looks at him ‘passing though all that time’ (p. 37) is likened to a bird that ‘touches a branch and rises and flutters away’ (p. 37). The emotion is fleeting and gentle, remembered in natural terms that remain ‘through all that time’. Clarissa’s happiest memory has flowers scattered in it, reflecting the positive connotations that they can have. This pinnacle, ‘the most exquisite moment of her whole life,’ followed ‘passing a stone urn with flowers in it. Sally stopped; picked a flower; kissed her on the lips’ (p. 30). The flowers are the catalysts and witness, poised in Sally Seton’s hand during Clarissa’s ‘most exquisite moment’. For all the magnitude of this instant, it is the presence of the flowers that take precedence, highlighting their lasting power. Cl arissa in particular loves the flower that is arguably England’s symbol of continuity, establishing its roots slowly and firmly in the ground: the rose. She thinks them ‘absolutely lovely’ (p. 101) and cares about them more than international politics, such as the Armenians in the aftermath of their genocide during the First World War: ‘she cared much more for her roses than for the Armenians’ (p. 102). Nevertheless, they are also strangely ‘the only flowers she could bear to see cut’ (p. 102). This contradicts both her affection for them and their status as symbols of continuity, but hints, rather, at an emerging corruption of traditional natural imagery in face of the horrors of the war. Through likening humans to birds, often in a sinister manner, Woolf begins to corrupt pastoral imagery, tainting it with the actions of humans. In Between the Acts, Isa and Rupert Haines are trapped swans, ‘his snow-white breast circled with a tangle of dirty duckweed; and she too, in her webbed feet was entangled by her husband’ (p. 2). The ‘snow-white’ is polluted, and it is difficult to separate the ‘dirty duckweed’ that imprisons them both with connotations of barbwire, tangling, cutting and trapping those on the war front. People are constantly described negatively as animals, Mrs. Haines with her ‘gooselike eyes, gobbling’ (p. 3), Clarissa with ‘a ridiculous little face, beaked like a bird’s’ (p. 9). The beggar woman in Mrs. Dalloway is a sinister bird, ‘a looming shape, a shadow shape’ (p. 70), steeped in an uncertain darkness, she possessed the ‘bird-like freshness of the very aged, she still twittered’ (p. 70). ‘Bird-like freshness’ is juxtaposed with ‘the very aged’, uniting the two and implying that birds now have ominous echoes of decay and death. The aggressive diction that Lucrezia uses to d escribe her husband Septimus Smith further distorts the bird symbol, drawing them closer to the monstrosities of the war. Her first impression of him was that of a ‘young hawk’ (p. 124), a bird of prey but still not yet aggressive, until Septimus becomes ‘a hawk or crow, being malicious and a great destroyer of crops’ (p. 126). The circling hawk, ‘malicious’ and ‘a great destroyer of crops,’ is not unlike circling military aircrafts, threatening to destroy what feeds and fuels a country. These comparisons of Woolf’s between birds and people corrupt natural imagery on several different levels. Firstly, the actions of humans – that of the war, maybe even of urbanization – have such large repercussions that they affect perceptions of the natural world, that which was meant to remain and continue. Secondly, there could even be suggestions of the transposition of human and animal roles, where humans are now prey on each other and like birds for game, fear being hunted. Moreover, humans are like birds in Woolf’s novels because birds create a birdsong, but through mirroring and merging with humans, it becomes a song of war. The pastoral requires birdsong and there is plenty in Woolf’s novels, but what once was a choir of idyllic chirping is distorted into the sinister, and eventually into a choir of war. Septimus, suffering from shell-shock, hears a sparrow chirping his name ‘four or five times over and went on, drawing its notes out to sing freshly and piercingly in Greek words†¦joined by another sparrow they sang in voices prolonged’ (p. 21). Birds singing with Greek voices were not an unfamiliar notion to Woolf, who in February 1904 suffered her first complete mental breakdown after hearing birds speaking in Greek. The birds’ voices are now an indication of madness, a corruption of nature. The birdsong is tormenting and ‘prolonged’, t he voices are invasive and piercing like the sounds of bombs, drones, gunfire and screams painful memories for a shell-shocked Septimus. However, in Between the Acts, a novel published in 1941, these links to wartime are made even more explicit. The birds are portrayed just as ‘piercingly’, constantly preventing the characters from sleep: ‘she had been waked by the birds. How they sang! Attacking the dawn†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢, ‘the random ribbons of birds’ voices woke her’ (p. 127). The diction used begins to resemble that of wartime, ‘attacking’ in the morning and randomly appearing in ‘ribbons’ of sound. Like air raids, the birds are an aerial onslaught, resounding and preventing humans from sleep and peace. The swallows that dance to the music of the pageant are similar, ‘retreating and advancing†¦yes, they barred the music, and massed and hoarded’ (p. 113). The birds ‘retreat and advance’ like soldiers on the field in their multitudes, barring the music of England’s happier past in the play with the song of the present and near future, a song at this point that Woolf knows, is one of war.The distortion of nature, then, signals a loss of the hope and nostalgia found in the pastoral, and indicates the resignation to another world war, the second that Woolf has seen. In Mrs. Dalloway, Woolf and the characters are still recovering from the First World War, but there is the slightest glimmer of hope: ‘the aeroplane soared straight up, curved in a loop, raced, sank, rose, and whatever it did, wherever it went, out fluttered behind it a thick ruffled bar of white smoke’ (p. 17). The plane here is safely for commercial use, ‘writing letters in the sky’ (p. 17), and in its description resembles a swan. The plane ‘raced, sank, rose’ in the same way a swan would in water, and this image is compounded by the ‘thick ruffled bar of white smoke’, like the ruffled white feathers of the bird. In its comparison to a swan, the plane adopts a naturality that reflects the optimism for the positive undercurrents of the pastoral to return. This, however, is contributed to the historical placing and publication of Mrs. Dalloway, nestled seven years after the First World War without the second in sight. In Between the Acts, however, this begins to change. Airplanes are still compared to birds: ‘twelve aeroplanes in perfect formation like a flight of wild duck came overhead’ (p. 119) and the ducks are still thought of in their unison and harmony, ‘perfect formation’. In spite of this, when applied to the planes, the devised aerial arrangement assumes an ominous tinge, indicating that the war is near. Eventually, the inverse comparison of birds as planes is achieved, as starlings become aerial forces attacking a tree, ‘the whole tree hummed with the whizz they made, as if each bir d plucked a wire. A whizz, a buzz rose from the bird-buzzing, bird-vibrant, bird-blackened tree’ (p. 130). The starlings are now mechanical with whizzing sounds and wires, no longer birds but ruthless machines. Conveyed in a tricolon of the birds’ actions, the tree is overwhelmed and helpless as they would not ‘stop devouring the tree’ (p. 130). There is no ‘perfect formation’ but merely a chaos that resonates with mechanical, weapon-like sounds that appear to have seeped into the creatures of nature, Woolf disclosing that war is here. Woolf has shown the state of pastoral and natural imagery to be indicators of historical significance in her novels. These images are connections to a happier past, and as Fussell aptly expresses, recourse to the pastoral is a means of both fully gauging the calamities of The Great War and imaginatively protecting oneself against them. However, their distortion throughout Mrs. Dalloway and more significantly B etween the Acts betrays a disintegration of this hopeful nostalgia. The transformation of the natural world into a world of warfare presents Woolf, who in Mrs. Dalloway was attempting to recover from the First World War, eventually being disillusioned in Between the Acts by the emergence of the second. Between the Acts is appropriately named, after all, set in between two great acts – the two wars. So, flowers and birds for Woolf are no longer, as Harris argues, optimistic symbols of hope. An episode between Woolf and her husband Leonard encapsulates this sentiment, when one afternoon she called him in from the garden to listen to Hitler on the radio, but he preferred to carry on planting irises that would be ‘flowering long after Hitler is dead’. The flowers are Leonard’s optimistic hopes, but Virginia was sitting inside listening to Hitler, dismissing the natural world, hearing and listening instead to the voice of war – a sound that corrupts the pastoral in her novels.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Essay The Greek Economy - 2993 Words

The Greek economy was a result of the combination of slaves, citizens and Metics. The Metic, however, was the driving and most important force behind the Greek economy. The slave was used only when seen fit. The citizen saw work as below the dignity of a free man. He left to others the labors that he was unwilling to perform himself. Firstly, it must be noted that any prejudice against manual labor among the Greeks was of comparatively late origin. Certainly, in the Homeric age, to labor with one’s hands was no disgrace. The prowess of Odysseus comes to mind, who was a mighty worker and built his own house and even his own bedstead. (Hom. Od.13, 31-34) There was no prejudice against manual labor in the time of Solon either, who decreed†¦show more content†¦This new found standing gave the citizen the view that he was above manual labor. The plunder gained from wars, and after the founding of the Delian League, the riches gained set up new standards of values and condu ct. With the increased wealth, fortunes were made overnight. The citizen enjoyed himself more and saw those who had to work for a living with contempt. Also, with the increased affluence, citizens were able to pay the Metic to carry out trade. Herodotus remarked upon this as something quite new, that the citizens â€Å"practice no trade and only war, which is their hereditary calling. Now, whether this separation, like other customs has come to Greece from Egypt I cannot exactly judge. I know that in Thrace and Scythia and Persia and Lydia and nearly all foreign countries those who learn trades and their descendants are held in less esteem than the rest of the people, and those who have nothing to do with artisan’s work, especially men who are free to practice war, are highly honored.† (Herod. 2, 166-167) This is a testament that the Greek citizen had shifted away from work and had elevated himself upon a pedestal. Thus creating a demand for highly skilled laborers, which was filled by the Metics. Aristotle and Plato simply would not allow or accept that a man, whose whole energies were devoted to making a living, could possibly at the same time fulfill his duties as a citizenShow MoreRelatedGreek Economy and the Eurozone821 Words   |  3 Pagespercent unemployment rate in 2014. Greece joined the Eurozone in 2001 and was the poorest European Union member at the time with a two point six percent inflation rate3 (James, 2000). Greece had a long economic history before joining the Eurozone. The economy flourished from 1960 to 1970 with low inflation and modernization and industrialization occurring. The market crash in the late 1970’s led Greece into a state of recession that the nation is still struggling with. 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The Minoans adopted almonds, the nuts of the mastic bush, and the yellow pulses that were being refined by more ancient peoples already in Greece, while finding wild grapes. The wild grapes were used to make wine. The people of Greece also foundRead MoreThe Euro in Crisis: Decision Time at the European Central Bank841 Words   |  4 Pagesextraordinary decision-making power, this will in effect have an impact on the financial economy of Greece. From this case analysis, the ECB must decide whether to purchase or to not purchase Greek sovereign debt (Trumbull, Roscini amp; Choi, 2011). The Problem After the sub-prime mortgage burst in the United States, this sent reverberating shock waves throughout world economies. As the US economy tightened, economies around the world were also affected; adversely affected highly leveraged banks in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Childhood Parents And Special Education - 961 Words

Introduction/ Problem Statement As children grow, they are expected to meet milestones along the way to ensure proper development is taking place. When a child fails to meet the developmental milestones for their age, interventions are often put into place in efforts to help the child perform as close to the expectations for his or her age as possible. These early interventions can help rectify the child’s deficiency; but at times, the child may need to receive long- term assistance or accommodation; particularly when entering school. These children can be recommended for special education. Being placed in special education affords children the opportunity to learn at their own pace with all the specific support they need. The children’s needs are met with guidance, patience, and scaffolding. Early childhood parents often have negative perceptions towards special education; resulting in the delay or impediment of their child receiving services. In this author’s experience as a classroom teacher, approximately half of all the parents whose child was identified as special needs resisted or delayed their child’s participation in services or special education because of their perceptions towards special education. It is necessary to understand what contributes to the perceptions in order to provide parents support they need to not only accept, but embrace their child’s needs to ensure the child performs at his or her full potential. Statement of the Problems Impact onShow MoreRelatedChildhood Education : Early Childhood Special Education Essay1266 Words   |  6 Pages Early Childhood Special education Name: Institution: Early Childhood Special education 1-The role of play in learning in early childhood Special Education Play is usually a natural activity in early childhood and has significant importance in early childhood special education. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Financial Information for Decision Making of JB Hi-Fi Limited

Question: Discuss about the Financial Information for Decision Making of JB Hi-Fi Limited. Answer: Introduction The analysis of financial performance and position is essential from the perspectives of the investors. The investors put their money on stake by investing in the companys shares therefore they should have understanding of the companys financial performance and position (Needles, Powers, and Crosson, 2013). In order analyze the companys financial performance, it is essential to assess the business of the company on four core parameters such as profitability, liquidity, efficiency, and gearing. In this context, a report has been presented here that covers the financial analysis of JB Hi-Fi Limited over the period of three financial years commencing from 2014 and ending on 2016. Company Background The JB Hi-Fi Limited, headquartered in Chadstone (Australia), listed on Australian stock exchange, is a retailing company. The company engages in the business of retail sales of home consumer products through two geographical segments such as Australia and New Zealand (JB Hi-Fi, 2016). The company offers a range of products which includes electronic products, telecommunication, and cooking products. The company was incorporated in the year 1974 and since then it has grown manifold to hold presently 194 JB Hi-Fi stores. Presently the company employs 7,814 people, which depicts its growing size. In the year 2016, the company operated with total revenues of $3.95 billion. Further, the EBIT and Operating profit after tax of the company were observed to be $221.2 million and $152.2 million respectively (JB Hi-Fi, 2016). The changes in technology have caused structural changes in the retail industry all over the world in the recent past years. The retail sale through stores is not in fashion now after introduction of sales through online platforms. Further, the competition has got stiff not in Australia but all over the world after introduction of online sales platform. However, JB Hi-Fi is getting into business acquisition strategies to reduce the adverse impact of competition. Recently in 2016, it has acquired one of its competitor in home appliances namely Good Guys (Berry, 2016). Analysis of Financial Performance The financial performance of the company has been observed to be good in the recent years as depicted from the gradual growth in the revenues, profits, and number of stores operated. Further probe into the profitability, liquidity, efficiency, and gearing is carried out as below: Profitability In order to assess the profitability of the company, the prominent ratios namely net profit and return on equity have been analyzed. The net profit ratio shows profits propionate to sales (Tracy, 2012). In regards to JB Hi-Fi, the net profit ratio for the year 2014, 2015, and 2016 have been found to be 3.67%, 3.75%, and 3.84% respectively (Appendix). Thus, it could be observed that the net profit ratio of the company has improved over the years. The increase in net profits ratio is the result of cost cutting. Due to increased competition in the industry, the company is bound to find the cost cutting mechanisms. Further, return on equity shows profits attributable to the equity owners proportionate to the total shareholders equity (Tracy, 2012). The return on equity of JB Hi-Fi has been found to be 43.54%, 39.83%, and 37.62% for the years 2014, 2015, and 2016 (Appendix). The return on equity is showing downward trend. The primary reason for downfall in the return on equity is increase in the shareholders equity over the period. The shareholders equity has increased from $294 million in 2014 to $404 million in 2016. Harvey Norman is the biggest competitor of JB Hi-Fi. Comparing the profitability of JB Hi-Fi with Harvey Norman, it has been observed that net profits ratio of the company is lower than that of competitor. However, the return on equity of the company is better. Harvey Norman has net profit ratio of 12.34% while the return on equity is 13.40% (Morningstar, 2017). Liquidity In order assess liquidity, the primary ratios such as current ratio and quick ratio have been computed and analyzed. The current and quick ratios show companys ability to meet the short term debt obligations. Higher the ratio better will be the liquidity position on the company (Tracy, 2012). In the case of JB Hi-Fi, the current ratio has been found to be 1.64, 1.62, and 1.57 times for the financial years 2014, 2015, and 2016 respectively (Appendix). The current ratio could be observed to be showing the downward trend over the period of time. Further, the quick ratio has been found to be 0.34, 0.36, 0.35 times (Appendix). The decreasing trend in current ratio implies degradation in the liquidity position of the company. However, the current ratio of the company is still better than that of its competitor. Harvey Norman has current ratio of 1.26 times which is lower than the companys current ratio of 1.64 times. Efficiency The measurement of efficiency relates to the assessment of managements efficiency in regards to utilization of assets. The ratios such as receivables days, payable days, and assets turnover have been computed for this purpose (Tracy, 2012). The receivable days have been found to be 7, 8, and 9 days for 2014, 2015, and 2016. The receivable days are showing a little bit increase which is adverse for the company because the funds are being tied for longer time now. The payable days have been found to be 33, 32, and 36. The increase in payable days is favorable for the company because now company is getting more credit period from the suppliers. The asset turnover ratio is also showing downward trend. The ratio fell from 4.05 times in 2014 to 3.99 times in 2016 (Appendix). The decrease in the asset turnover ratio shows degradation in the managements efficiency in regards to utilization of the assets optimally. Gearing/Solvency The gearing or solvency implies the companys ability to meet the long term debt obligations on time. For this purpose, the debt equity ratio and debt to asset ratios are considered to be suitable to evaluate. The debt to equity ratio assesses the debt propionate to equity and debt to asset ratio assesses total assets financed by debt funds (Tracy, 2012). In the case of JB Hi-Fi, the debt to equity ratio has been found to be 1.92, 1.60, and 1.46 times for the financial years 2014, 2015, and 2016 respectively. It could be observed that debt to equity ratio is decreasing over the period which indicates reduction in the risk of solvency. Further, the debt to asset ratio is also observed to be decreasing. In the year 2014, it was 0.66 times and went down to 0.59 times in the year 2016 (appendix). The debt equity ratio of Harvey Norman is 0.08 times which is way lower than that of the company (Morningstar, 2017). Thus, it could be inferred that the company is bearing more solvency risk than the competitor. Conclusion From the discussion in the report, it could be articulated that the financial performance of JB Hi-Fi is moderate. The company is growing at a slow pace. The revenue and net profits are increasing but at slow pace. Further, on certain parameters the company is lagging behind its competitor. The net margin of company is lower than the competitor. Further, the debt to equity ratio of the company is higher than the competitor which depicts high solvency risk for the company. However, the fact that company has acquired one of its competitors namely Good Guys could give a reason to investors to make investment in the companys shares. The acquisition of Good Guys is predicted to have positive impact on the financial performance of the company. Thus, it is recommended to the investors to make investment in the companys shares from the short term perspective. References Berry, P. 2016. JB Hi-Fi takes market lead with Good Guys. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 17 May 2017]. JB Hi-Fi. 2016. Annual report of JB Hi-Fi Limited for 2016. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 17 May 2017]. Morningstar. 2017. Harvey Norman Holdings Ltd. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 17 May 2017]. Needles, B.E., Powers, M., and Crosson, S.V. 2013. Financial and Managerial Accounting. Cengage Learning. PWC. 2017. 2017 Retail trends. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 17 May 2017]. Tracy, A. 2012. Ratio Analysis Fundamentals: How 17 Financial Ratios Can Allow You to Analyse Any Business on the Planet.